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  • 如何将postgresql数据库表内数据导出为excel格式(推荐)
  • 2021/3/5 9:47:50
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    本文主要用于介绍如何使用copy或者\copy命令将postgresql数据库内表的数据导出为excel格式,方便用户查看编辑。

    copy命令同\copy命令语法上相同,区别在于copy必须使用能够超级用户使用,copy … to file 中的文件都是数据库服务器所在的服务器上的文件,而\copy 一般用户即可执行且\copy 保存或者读取的文件是在客户端所在的服务器。本文主要以copy命令作为介绍重点,使用copy命令将表内数据倒为csv格式文件即为excel格式。
    1、copy命令语法

    copy { 表名 [ ( 列名称 [, ...] ) ] | ( 查询 ) } 
    to { '文件名' | program '命令' | stdout } 
     [ [ with ] ( 选项 [, ...] ) ]
    
    选项可以是下列内容之一
     format 格式_名称 
     freeze [ 布尔 ] 
     delimiter '分隔字符' 
     null '空字符串' 
     header [ 布尔 ] 
     quote '引用字符' 
     escape '转义字符' 
     force_quote { ( 列名称 [, ...] ) | * } 
     force_not_null ( 列名称 [, ...] ) 
     force_null ( 列名称 [, ...] ) 
     encoding 'encoding_name(编码名)'

    2、多场景使用介绍
    ①查看现有表数据

    test=# select * from test;
    user_id | user_name | age | gender |     remark     
    ---------+---------------+-----+--------+----------------------------------------------
      1 | jackie chan | 45 | male | "police story","project a","rush hour"
      3 | brigitte li | 46 | female | 
      4 | maggie cheung | 39 | female | 
      5 | jet li  | 41 | male | "fist of legend","once upon a time in china"
      2 | gong li  | 38 | female | "farewell my concubine","lifetimes living"
    (5 行记录)

    ②带列名导出,默认情况下使用,作为分隔符

    test=# copy test to '/tmp/test1.csv' with csv header;
    copy 5
    test=# \! cat /tmp/test1.csv
    user_id,user_name,age,gender,remark
    1,jackie chan,45,male,"""police story"",""project a"",""rush hour"""
    3,brigitte li,46,female,
    4,maggie cheung,39,female,
    5,jet li,41,male,"""fist of legend"",""once upon a time in china"""
    2,gong li,38,female,"""farewell my concubine"",""lifetimes living"

    ③带列名导出,指定使用|作为分隔符

    test=# copy test to '/tmp/test1.csv' with csv header delimiter '|';
    copy 5
    test=# \! cat /tmp/test1.csv
    user_id|user_name|age|gender|remark
    1|jackie chan|45|male|"""police story"",""project a"",""rush hour"""
    3|brigitte li|46|female|
    4|maggie cheung|39|female|
    5|jet li|41|male|"""fist of legend"",""once upon a time in china"""
    2|gong li|38|female|"""farewell my concubine"",""lifetimes living"

    ④带列名导出,将空字符替换为指定值导出

    test=# copy test to '/tmp/test1.csv' with csv header null 'to be supplemented';
    copy 5
    test=# \! cat /tmp/test1.csv
    user_id,user_name,age,gender,remark
    1,jackie chan,45,male,"""police story"",""project a"",""rush hour"""
    3,brigitte li,46,female,to be supplemented
    4,maggie cheung,39,female,to be supplemented
    5,jet li,41,male,"""fist of legend"",""once upon a time in china"""
    2,gong li,38,female,"""farewell my concubine"",""lifetimes living"

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