The business of building systems has changed. A time once existed when computer literacy, technical know-how, and programming skills were all it took to become a successful information systems professional. In many companies, this is still the case. But slowly, yet steadily, a new breed of systems professional is beginning to emerge. Technical skills are no longer enough. Business knowledge, communication ability, and a client centered perspective are becoming more and more important. With computer systems playing an ever increasing role in the management and the competitiveness of companies of all sizes, the information systems professional no longer just serves the company, in many case he or she has a major influence on the way business is conducted.
系统建造这一工作（业务）已经变了！曾经一度时间，计算机素养、技术细节、 编程技巧是成为一个成功信息系统专业人士的全部。（事实上，）在很多公司里，目前 仍然是这样。但是，慢慢地，新一代的信息系统专业人员正在稳步开始出现。仅有技术 上的技巧已经不够，业务知识、沟通能力、以客户为中心的观点变得越来越重要。随着 计算机系统在各种（或所有）大大小小的公司中的管理和竞争能力方面起的作用越来越 重要，信息系统专业人员不再仅仅是为公司服务，在很多情况下他或她对业务运作的方 式有着关键的影响。
What does this mean for today's systems professional? It means the burden of keeping up is even more challenging than ever! Systems professionals must increasingly view themselves as business problem solvers and business enablers, not just technicians. Computing power has become a part of corporate strategy, and the system builders are charged with creating the business information systems "vision" and making it a reality. Add to this the vast array of technical platforms, programming languages, databases, and system building methodologies which are available in today's marketplace, and the job becomes somewhat overwhelming! So how should the computing professional approach these challenges?
那么对于今天的系统专业人员来说，这意味着什么呢？ 意味着（系统）维护的 担子比以前更具有挑战性！系统专业人员必须进一步把自己当作业务问题的解决者和 业务使能者，而不仅仅是技术人员。现在，计算能力已成为公司策略的一部分，而系 统开发人员则负责创造业务信息系统的“愿景”，并将它变成现实。加上目前大量在 市场上可获得的技术平台、编程语言、数据库和系统开发方法，这项工作一定程度上 说势在必行！那么，计算业人员应如何面对这些挑战？
First, today's system builder must adopt a more business centered philosophy, and second, he or she must exercise discipline and flexibility as the company moves through the system building lifecycle. But which lifecycle? Traditional System Building Approaches, Information Engineering, Object Oriented Design, Rapid Application Development, and a host of others all possess inherent strengths and weaknesses. Which one is best? How should these approach decisions be made?
首先，今天的系统建造人员必须采纳更加以业务为中心的哲学；其次，随公司沿着 系统建造生命周期的推进，他或她必须训练自己的纪律性和灵活性。然而是哪个生命周期？ 传统的系统建造方法，信息工程、面向对象设计、快速应用开发，以及其它方法都具有其固 有的优点和缺点。哪个是最好的？应当如何进行这些方法的决策？
Unfortunately, no easy answers exist to these questions. Depending on circumstances and experience, one approach may be preferable over another. In other situations, a sampling of techniques and methods from one or more of the current approaches may be appropriate. What follows within this web site is a mix. Some of the strengths from the traditional lifecycle are still present, the foundation of structured analysis is present, many of the advantages of information engineering have been incorporated, and the new paradigms of object-oriented analysis, design and programming are included.
不幸的是，对于这些问题不存在简单的回答。在特定的环境和经验下，一种方法可能要 比其它方法好。然而在其它的环境下，从现有方法中提取的一些技术和方法可能更加合适。 这个网站构造就是一个(这种方法的)混合体。传统生命周期的部分优点依旧存在，结构化分 析的基础依旧存在，而很多信息工程的优点已经被结合，包括面向对象分析、设计、编程等 新方法。
The main criteria for discussion here is one of practicality. What are the approaches which make most sense in today's business climate, and which will yield the greatest productivity results given the ever increasing quality demands of the business clients. The other consideration for inclusion here is that the selected philosophies and approaches are proven and they work. They have been developed from actual IS implementation and support experiences.
这里讨论的主要准则是实用性。在今天的商业气候中最起作用的方法是什么，哪种方法 能面对商业客户不断增长的质量需要而产生最大的收益。这里，另一需要考虑的是被选体系 和方法应当是被证实的，并能工作的。它们是在实际的信息系统实施和支持实践中形成的。
系统成功的关键The Bottom Line ---软件工程系列文章之二
By Russ Finney
（来自软件工程论坛 seforum.yeah.net） (翻译yanrj )
Success! The system is in the hands of the client and it is processing real business information. Time for a project team celebration! Pats on the back all around for everyone. High minded speeches from team leaders, project sponsors, and various excited client participants. No more late nights, weekends, or early mornings. The effort was long and seemingly endless but it was all worth it. The sense of achievement experienced from the solution of a complex business problem by the installation of a new system is indescribable. A number of years and a large number of people may have been involved. The time has come to celebrate the team's victory!
成功了！系统已经交到客户手中，并且正在处理真正的商业信息。正是项目团队庆祝的时间。轻轻拍拍每个人的后背，由来自团队领导、项目负责人、兴奋的客户方参与 者的有思想高度的演讲。不再有晚上的熬夜、未休息的周末、早起的清晨。付出的努 力是漫长的且似乎无止境，但是值得的。通过安装一个新的系统而解决一个复杂的业 务问题所获得的感觉是难以形容的。这可能要涉及到很多人数年的工作。现在是庆祝 团队胜利的时刻了！
But is it always this way? Another team is exhausted. The death march is finally over. They will never have to see each other again. Boxes and logon IDs can't be turned in quickly enough. All references to real names are removed from programs. "Don't call me when this thing blows up", is muttered now and then. No team gathering is held, just a slow disbanding as each team member disappears onto other projects or activities. The clients seem disenchanted. An air of uncertainty and impending difficulty surrounds the system and those associated with it...
但结果都是这样吗？另一个团队精疲力竭。期限任务结束了。他们将不再彼此见 面了。而程序的逻辑单元和登录id还不能立即交付。所有涉及真名的参考都从程序中移走。“当它崩溃时不要找我”不时的被嘀咕着。没有团队的集会，仅仅是慢慢的解 散团队，每个成员消失而出现在其它的项目或活动中。客户看起来不再着迷。不确定 的氛围和迫近的困难环绕这系统和与之有关的人。
Or, the worst fate. A surprise meeting! The team has been progressing, but somewhat without direction. The budget is slipping, the client is unsure what is happening, and questions are raised about competence. No one team member can be identified who has a "vision" of the system or the system building process. The inevitable happens, the project is cancelled. The money spent to date was absolutely, totally wasted!
或者，最坏的。令人惊讶的结果。团队在不断进步，但从某种程度说是没有方 向。目标是不可靠的，客户不能确定将要发生什么，有关能力的问题被提出。团对中 没有一个人能够确定系统的版本或系统的建造过程。必然的事情发生了，项目被撤 销。所有花费的钱完全彻底的浪
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